The Health Technology Assessment (HTA) in action is the first journal dedicated to health technology assessment in developing countries. IR's National Institute for Health Research publishes this journal under the supervision of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).

Journal of HTA in action is a peer-reviewed journal that aims to publish topics related to health technology assessment; it is noteworthy that HTA in action offers a fast route for publishing high-quality peer-reviewed research. The journal covers studies evaluating medical equipment, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem in the form of original studies, review articles, case reports, brief communications, and letters. HTA plays an important role in the process of macro and micro policy and decision making, therefore it is expected to witness an improvement in the pace, efficiency and validity of policy making via publishing HTA studies.

Current Issue

Vol 6 No 4 (2022)


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    Background: Human exposure to fungal elements is inevitable. Normal inhalation routinely deposits fungal spores within the nose and paranasal sinuses. Incidence of fungal infections are increasing, because of the greater use of immunosuppressive, increasing incidence of transplantation, chemotherapy, HIV infection, and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this research was to study the effects of nasal irrigation with normal saline on eliminating nasal fungal flora.

    Methods: We studied the clinical efficacy of nasal saline irrigation on the healthy individuals in a pilot study. Nasal swabs were used to get the nasal samples from 140 cases, 90 women and 50 men, currently living in Tehran. Those cases with positive fungal cultures, underwent nasal saline irrigation. They were reevaluated with nasal sampling and culture after a week.

    Results: Positive fungal culture was detected in 22 cases (15.7%): saprophyte fungi were the most common (45.4%). After nasal saline irrigation, negative fungal cultures were found in 54.5% of cases (P value=0.0009).

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that nasal irrigation with nasal saline appears to be both safe and effective on the eradication of nasal fungal flora. So, it seems to be useful in prevention and management of all types of fungal rhinosinusitis.

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    Introduction: The World Health Organization has referred to infertility as a worldwide reproductive health problem that threatens the mental health of infertile couples and can lead to disorders such as stress, depression, isolation, guilt etc. This study aimed to determine the Knowledge, attitudes and practice of infertile couples about assisted reproductive technology , 2019-2020.

    Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 331 infertile person who referred to Alzahra Infertility Center in Shahrekord, Iran in 2019-2020. Sampling was done by Convenience Sampling. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire consisting of four parts. The first part consisted of 17 demographic questions, the second part consisted of 20 questions, the third part consisted of 23 questions, and the fourth part consisted of 9 questions. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results: In this study, 331 infertile person who referred to infertility clinic of AL-Zahra were studied. The mean awareness of infertile couples was 14.26 (moderate knowledge level) and their mean attitude was 57.01 (negative attitude). Comparison of knowledge of study participants with Gender, Address, ethnicity, Language, Education, The duration of infertility,  Causes of Infertility, feminine factor,  Age and,  Years of marriage was significant (p<0.05), Comparison of attitudes of study participants with Gender, Address, Education, Job, The duration of infertility and  Causes of Infertility was significant (p<0.05), Relationship between knowledge of study participants with The duration of infertility,  Cause of infertility, knowledge of( IUI, IVF, ICSI, ZIFT, Replaced uterus, Donated ovum, Sperm donation and The donating embryo) and attitude of (IUI IVF Replaced uterus Donated ovum) was significant (p<0.05) and Relationship between attitude of study participants with The duration of infertility,  knowledge of( IUI, Replaced uterus and Donated ovum) and attitude of (IUI IVF Replaced uterus Donated ovum) was significant (p<0.05).

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the higher the level of awareness, the more negative the attitude toward assisted reproductive Technology. In addition, in people who use more pharmacological methods to treat infertility, the rate of using the new assisted reproductive method is less than the pharmacological methods. Therefore, it is recommended that health system policymakers and guardians improve childbearing status in the country by establishing counseling classes and correcting people's awareness of new methods of assisted reproduction, in order to correct people's misconceptions about using these methods.

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    Background: Marketing is a vital, however less addressed, capability in knowledge-based companies and is a leading contributor of challenges in this sector. Therefore, the present research was conducted with the aim of identifying the marketing challenges of health-related knowledge-based products.

    Methods: The present study is a qualitative research. The participants included 10 experts from technology units located in the growth centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, who were selected by purposive sampling and using the theoretical saturation index. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis with inductive approach and using MAXQDA version 12 software

    Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 4 main categories including legal/ regulatory factors, financial factors, infrastructural factors and market factors. Each of these main categories consisted of several sub-categories that described a specific aspect of the challenges of this field.

    Conclusion: The obtained results showed that legal/regulatory factors, financial, infrastructural and market factors are among the marketing challenges experienced by technology units located in the growth centers.

    Keywords: marketing challenges, knowledge-based companies, knowledge-based products, health field

Review Article

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    Background: Infodemic in Covid-19 epidemic is the title of too much information about this disease that spreads quickly. This information can cause various psychological consequences in people.

    Objectives: This systematic review study surveyed the effect of infodemic on individuals' mental health in the COVID-19 epidemic.

    Methods: The principles of PRISMA were used to conduct this systematic review. Data was collected by searching the WOS, PubMed, and Scopus databases on December 31, 2021. Inclusion criteria included English-language research articles that were in relation to the purpose of the study.

    Results: For the final review of the present study, 17 articles were selected. The results showed anxiety (11 articles), depression (6 articles), and stress (5 articles) as the main psychological consequences of individuals in facing the media, news, and COVID-19-related information. According to the study, people who are more subjected to COVID-19-related information are more prone to psychological consequences and more exposed to anxiety, depression, and stress.

    Conclusion: Accordingly, it is recommended that individuals, while raising their health and media literacy, avoid as much as possible the constant pursuit of COVID-19-related news, especially obtaining news from unreliable sources.

Brief Report

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    Big data refers to large and complex data sets that cannot be easily processed managed or analyzed using traditional data processing tools and techniques. The role of big data in health encompasses a wide range of applications that leverage large and complex data sets to improve health outcomes and healthcare delivery. With the growth of digital health technologies and the increasing availability of health data from various sources, big data analytics has become a critical tool in healthcare research, management, and decision-making. The goal of UHC is to ensure that everyone has access to the health services they need, when and where they need them, without having to face financial barriers or catastrophic health expenditures that can lead to poverty. UHC plays a critical role in achieving equity in health by ensuring that all individuals and communities have access to quality health services without facing financial hardship. Big data can play a significant role in achieving equity by enabling the identification and analysis of disparities and inequalities across various domains, including healthcare, education, employment, and social welfare. The use of big data in Iran's health system has the potential to significantly improve healthcare delivery, enhance patient outcomes, and reduce healthcare costs. Big data can be used to monitor and evaluate progress towards achieving UHC goals in Iran.

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