Designing a Questionnaire to Measure Factors Affecting Utilization of Services for Diabetics in Health Centers Based on Social Marketing Model




Subject: The needs and wants of patients as one of the pillars of marketing in the health field required the right tools to identify the consumer's requests. This research was conducted in order to design an appropriate tool based on the 7 Ps model to evaluate the factors affecting the behavior of using services in the customers referring to diabetes units.

Methods: The study conducted in three steps. The first steps included definition of the concept, determination of the items, and characteristics of the instrument. In the step of concept definition, through literature review, the items were identified and arranged in the form of a questionnaire. Then, using the opinions of professionals and diabetics, the identified items were reviewed. In the third step, the validity and reliability of the instrument were confirmed using CVI, CVR, ICC and Cronbach's alpha.

Results: according to the results of the first and second phase of the study, the initial 46-itmes questionnaire was provided. After determining the formal and content validity quantitatively and qualitatively, statements of the questionnaire decreased to 38.The calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients (0.89) represents the high internal consistency of the questionnaire. The results of the reliability of the questionnaire were obtained by re-test method (0.92).

Conclusion: Using this questionnaire helps researchers to analyze the diabetic patients' behavior and specifies the reasons for acceptance or rejection of the services of the diabetes unit by the patient. It can also be used in all centers providing care services to its diabetic patients

1. Lamri L, Gripiotis E, Ferrario A. Diabetes in Algeria and challenges for health policy: a literature review of prevalence, cost, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. Globalization and health. 2014;10(1):1.
2. van der Kooi A-LL, Snijder MB, Peters RJ, van Valkengoed IG. The association of handgrip strength and type 2 diabetes mellitus in six ethnic groups: an analysis of the HELIUS study. PloS one. 2015;10(9):e0137739.
3. He L, Wang H, Gu C, He X, Zhao L, Tong X. Administration of Traditional Chinese Blood Circulation Activating Drugs for Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2016;2016.
4. ahmadi r, foroutan m, Alinavaz M. Individual characteristics, common clinical features and diet history in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes in Eslamshahr-Tehran.
5.Llauradó E, Aceves-Martins M, Tarro L, Papell-Garcia I, Puiggròs F, Arola L, et al. A youth-led social marketing intervention to encourage healthy lifestyles, the EYTO (European Youth Tackling Obesity) project: a cluster randomised controlled0 trial in Catalonia, Spain. BMC public health. 2015;15(1):1.
6. Janssen MM, Mathijssen JJ, van Bon–Martens MJ, Van Oers HA, Garretsen HF. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy. 2013;8(1):1.
7. Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.
8. Aras R. Social marketing in healthcare. Australas Med J. 2011;4(8):418-24.
9. Alreck PL, Settle RB. Strategies for building consumer brand preference. Journal of product & brand management. 1999;8(2):130-44.
10 Rafiq M, Ahmed PK. Using the 7Ps as a generic marketing mix: an exploratory survey of UK and European marketing academics. marketing intelligence & planning. 1995;13(9):4-15.
11. Mei L. Marketing mix (7P) and performance assessment ofwestern fast food industry in Taiwan: An application by associating DEMATEL and ANP, Afr. J Bus Manage. 2011;5(26):10634-44.
12. York AS, McCarthy KA. Patient, staff and physician satisfaction: a new model, instrument and their implications. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 2011;24(2):178-91.
13. Wickham M. Thana-marketing strategy: exploring the 8Ps that dare not speak their name. International Journal of Business Strategy. 2009;9(1):194-201.
14. Mittal A. Role of Marketing Mix for Indian Marketers. Global Journal of Finance and Management. 2014;6(3):191-6.
15. Ahmad AEMK, Al-Qarni AA, Alsharqi OZ, Qalai DA, Kadi N. The impact of marketing mix strategy on hospitals performance measured by patient satisfaction: an empirical investigation on Jeddah private sector hospital senior managers perspective. International Journal of Marketing Studies. 2013;5(6):210.
17. Abbas Ali Dehghani Tafti SSM, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad SHK, Hassan Rezaeipandari. Barriers and Incentives of Self-care from the View of Diabetic Patients and
their Service Providers Using the Social Marketing Model in Ardakan, Iran. J Qual Res Health Sci. 2015;3(4):317-30.
18. Lacasse Y, Godbout C, Series F. Health-related quality of life in obstructive sleep apnoea. European Respiratory Journal. 2002;19(3):499-503.
19.Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Streiner DL, King DR. Clinical impact versus factor analysis for quality of life questionnaire construction. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 1997;50(3):233-8.
20. Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity1. Personnel psychology. 1975;28(4):563-75.
21. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in nursing & health. 2007;30(4):459-67.
22. Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistics notes: Cronbach's alpha. Bmj. 1997;314(7080):572.
23. Luffy R, Grove SK. Examining the validity, reliability, and preference of three pediatric pain measurement tools in African-American children. Pediatric nursing. 2003;29(1):54.
24. Lamoureux EL, Pesudovs K, Pallant JF, Rees G, Hassell JB, Caudle LE, et al. An evaluation of the 10-item vision core measure 1 (VCM1) scale (the Core Module of the Vision-Related Quality of Life scale) using Rasch analysis. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2008;15(4):224-33.
25. Berkowitz EN. Essentials of health care marketing: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2010.
26. Sanaie A, Ketabei S, Mortaza Pour Halag H. Study of Customers prefers in choosing a TV using a hierarchical analysis technique. Journal of Administrative Sciences and Economics. 2004;17(3):41-56.
27. Weingart SN, Pagovich O, Sands DZ, Li JM, Aronson MD, Davis RB, et al. Patient-reported service quality on a medicine unit. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 2006;18(2):95-101.
28. Keller KL, Parameswaran M, Jacob I. Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity: Pearson Education India; 2011.
29.Souba WW, Haluck CA, Menezes MA. Marketing strategy: an essential component of business development for academic health centers. The American Journal of Surgery. 2001;181(2):105-14.
30 Lee W-I, Shih B-Y. Application of neural networks to recognize profitable customers for dental services marketing-a case of dental clinics in Taiwan. Expert systems with applications. 2009;36(1):199-208.
31. Rao KD, Peters DH, Bandeen-Roche K. Towards patient-centered health services in India—a scale to measure patient perceptions of quality. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 2006;18(6):414-21.
32. Shook M. Transportation barriers and health access for patient attending a community health center. Field Area paper. 2005.
33. Shirzadi SM, Raeissi P, Nasiripour AA, Tabibi SJ. Factors affecting the quality of hospital hotel services from the patients and their companions’ point of view: A national study in Iran. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2016;21(3).
34. Dussault G, Dubois C-A. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies. Human resources for health. 2003;1(1):1.
35. Collier DA. New marketing mix stresses service. Journal of Business Strategy. 1991;12(2):42-5.
IssueVol 5, No 2 (2021) QRcode
Social marketing model; Marketing mix; Health facilities; Diabetes

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Davoodi M, Jahanbani E, Faraji Khiavi F, Nadaf M. Designing a Questionnaire to Measure Factors Affecting Utilization of Services for Diabetics in Health Centers Based on Social Marketing Model. Health Tech Ass Act. 2021;5(2).