Assessing the sensitivity of the Nano-Biosensor Color Indicator as a method for identifying nosocomial infection reservoirs


Groundbreaking knowledge at the nanoscale has been developed in many functional and industrial situations. Nanoscale colour recognition sensors have been developed by researchers in order to offer new ways to identify harmful germs. This study objective was to evaluate the ability of nano-biosensors colour indicators to identify nosocomial infection reservoirs.
Method: The enquiry was conducted in a semi-experimental environment for a month. Samples were obtained both prior to and during standard disinfection. The final findings were described as both clean and infected. There were 400 cases in the sample, 10 different types of equipment were employed, and sampling was done.
Results: The results showed high contamination of the studied surfaces. Moreover, 55% of the samples were infected before disinfection, which was reduced to 36.5% after routine disinfection.
Conclusion: The findings show that this tool has the necessary sensitivity, and we can introduce it as a standard tool for microbial contamination in the future; however, the aim was not to identify the type of microorganism.

1. Mamishi S, Pourakbari B, Teymuri M, Babamahmoodi A, Mahmoudi S. Management of hospital infection control in Iran: a need for implementation of multidisciplinary approach. Osong public health and research perspectives. 2014;5(4):179-86.
2. Drohan SE, Levin SA, Grenfell BT, Laxminarayan R. Incentivizing hospital infection control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2019;116(13):6221-5.
3. Lu D, Wang H, Yu R, Yang H, Zhao Y. Integrated infection control strategy to minimize nosocomial infection of coronavirus disease 2019 among ENT healthcare workers. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2020;104(4):454-5.
4. Moazeni M, Asgari S, Nabili M. Nosocomial fungal infections: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2018;28(160):182-212.
5. Boos N. Health care technology assessment and transfer. Springer; 2007. p. 1291-2.
6. Naidu Krishna S, Govender P, Adam JK. Nano silver particles in biomedical and clinical applications. Journal of pure and applied microbiology (Print). 2015.
7. Martínez JL. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments. Science. 2008;321(5887):365-7.
8. Kollef MH, Torres A, Shorr AF, Martin-Loeches I, Micek ST. Nosocomial infection. Critical care medicine. 2021;49(2):169-87.
9. Solaimuthu A, Vijayan AN, Murali P, Korrapati PS. Nano-biosensors and their relevance in tissue engineering. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering. 2020;13:84-93.
10. Afsharipour M, Mahmoudi S, Raji H, Pourakbari B, Mamishi S. Three-year evaluation of the nosocomial infections in pediatrics: bacterial and fungal profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2022;21(1):1-7.
11. Arnold MA, Meyerhoff ME. Recent advances in the development and analytical applications of biosensing probes. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 1988;20(3):149-96.
12. Eggins BR. Chemical sensors and biosensors: John Wiley & Sons; 2002.
13. Wilson GS, Gifford R. Biosensors for real-time in vivo measurements. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2005;20(12):2388-403.
14. Touhami A. Biosensors and nanobiosensors: design and applications. Nanomedicine. 2014;15:374-403.
15. Bhattarai P, Hameed S. Basics of biosensors and nanobiosensors. Nanobiosensors: From Design to Applications. 2020:1-22.
16. Dehnavieh R, Rashidian A, Maleki MR. Challenges of determining basic health insurance package in Iran. Payesh (Health Monitor). 2011;10(2):273-83.
17. Busse R, Orvain J, Velasco M, Perleth M, Drummond M, Jørgensen T, et al. Best practice in undertaking and reporting health technology assessments: Working Group 4 report. International journal of technology assessment in health care. 2002;18(2):361-422.
18. Goodman CS. HTA 101 Introduction to health technology assessment2014.
19. Goodman CS. Introduction to health technology assessment. The Lewin Group virginia, USA. 2004.
20. Xu L, Shoaie N, Jahanpeyma F, Zhao J, Azimzadeh M, Al KT. Optical, electrochemical and electrical (nano) biosensors for detection of exosomes: A comprehensive overview. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2020;161:112222.
21. Sikora A, Zahra F. Nosocomial infections. StatPearls [Internet]. 2021.
22. Mispah CP, Kelamane S. Nosocomial infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karimnagar, Telangana. 2021.
23. Parthasarathy A, Menon P, Nair M. IAP Textbook of pediatrics: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2019.
24. Jenkins DR. Nosocomial infections and infection control. Medicine. 2017;45(10):629-33.
25. Lu D, Wang H, Yu R, Yang H, Zhao Y. Integrated infection control strategy to minimize nosocomial infection of coronavirus disease 2019 among ENT healthcare workers. The Journal of hospital infection. 2020;104(4):454.
26. Moosazadeh M, Eybpoosh S, Nasirian M, Molavi Vardanjani H, Sheikhzadeh K, Afshari M, et al. Explanation of the status of nosocomial surveillance system in Iran: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences. 2020;4(4):406-25.
27. Ekrami A, Ghadermazi M, Ekrami M, Hosseini MA, Emam-Djomeh Z, Hamidi-Moghadam R. Development and evaluation of Zhumeria majdae essential oil-loaded nanoliposome against multidrug-resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2022;69:103148.
28. Karami G, Khazei M, RASULI RF, EMTIYAZIPOOR Z. Evaluating the effect of hospital medical instruments on the nosocomial infection risk. 2015.
29. Zhang Y, Dawson PL, Hanks TW, Northcutt JK, Tzeng T-R, Pennington WT. Detecting and correlating bacterial populations to visual color change of polydiacetylene-coated filters. Talanta. 2021;221:121482.
30. Silbert L, Ben Shlush I, Israel E, Porgador A, Kolusheva S, Jelinek R. Rapid chromatic detection of bacteria by use of a new biomimetic polymer sensor. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2006;72(11):7339-44.
31. Meir D, Silbert L, Volinsky R, Kolusheva S, Weiser I, Jelinek R. Colorimetric/fluorescent bacterial sensing by agarose‐embedded lipid/polydiacetylene films. Journal of applied microbiology. 2008;104(3):787-95.
32. Ma G, Cheng Q. Vesicular polydiacetylene sensor for colorimetric signaling of bacterial pore-forming toxin. Langmuir. 2005;21(14):6123-6.
33. Saleh HN, Kavosi A, Pakdel M, Yousefi M, Asghari FB, Mohammadi AA. Assessment health status of ICU medical equipment levels at Neyshabur hospitals using ICNA and ACC indices. MethodsX. 2018;5:1364-72.
34. Nazeri M, Arani JS, Ziloochi N, Delkhah H, Arani MH, Asgari E, et al. Microbial contamination of keyboards and electronic equipment of ICU (Intensive Care Units) in Kashan University of medical sciences and health service hospitals. MethodsX. 2019;6:666-71.
35. Riyahin AA, Eshraghi M, Gharehbeglou M, Ahmadli Z, Karami G, Shahrzad ME. Evaluation of ICU microbial contamination in Qom hospitals using observational and microbial monitoring methods with three indices of observation, colony count, and METHICILLIN-RESISTANT S. AUREUS. Journal of Current Research in Science. 2014;2(6):788.
36. Aslani Y, Saadat M, Etemadifar S, Fazeli S. The evaluation of different hospital equipment microbial contamination in medical training center Hajar of Shahrekord. Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care. 2009;17(12):19-29.
IssueVol 6 No 3 (2022) QRcode
Color Sensor Nano biosensor Nanotechnology Nosocomial infection infection control device-associated infection

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ekrami A, Hosseini M-A, Fallahi-Khoshknab M. Assessing the sensitivity of the Nano-Biosensor Color Indicator as a method for identifying nosocomial infection reservoirs. Health Tech Ass Act. 2023;6(3).